Microcontroller Instruction Set. For interrupt response time information, refer to the hardware description chapter. Note: 1. Operations on SFR byte address Instruction Set. ♢ Introduction. ♢ CIP architecture and memory organization review. ♢ Addressing modes. ➢ Register addressing. ➢ Direct addressing. Instruction hex code. MOVE with immediate data. Hex. Bytes Instruction. 2. MOV A, #immediate. 3. MOV direct, #immediate. 2. MOV @R0, #.
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The binary-compatible Z80 later added prefix-codes to escape from this 1-byte limit and allow for a more powerful instruction set.
Processor register Register file Memory buffer Program counter Stack. Every integer instruction could operate on either 1-byte or 2-byte integers and could access data stored in registers, stored as part of the brfehlssatz, stored in memory, bfehlssatz stored in memory and pointed to by addresses in registers.
This article has begehlssatz issues. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Tomasulo befehlssahz Reservation station Re-order buffer Register renaming. Since the PDP was an octal-oriented 3-bit sub-byte machine addressing modes 0—7, registers R0—R7there were electronically 8 addressing modes.
Articles that may contain original research from November All articles that may contain original research Articles needing additional references from April All articles needing additional references Articles with multiple maintenance issues Articles needing additional references from April All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April Perhaps some of the bits that were used to express the fully orthogonal instruction set could instead be used to express more virtual address bfehlssatz or select from among more registers.
A fully orthogonal architecture may not be the most “bit efficient” architecture. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Branch prediction Memory dependence prediction. An assembly-language programmer or compiler writer had to be mindful of which operations were possible on each register: In many CISC computers, an instruction could access either registers or memory, usually in several different ways.
However, the encoding-strategy used still shows many traces from befhelssatz and and Z80 ; for instance, single-byte encodings remain for certain frequent operations such as push and pop of registers and constants, and the primary accumulator, eaxemploy shorter encodings than the other registers on certain types of operations; observations like this are sometimes exploited for code optimization in both compilers and hand written code.
Even the PC befehlssatx the stack pointer could be affected by the ordinary instructions using all of the ordinary data modes. Designers of RISC architectures strove to achieve a balance that they thought better. Retrieved from ” https: Data dependency Structural Control False sharing.
This article needs additional citations for verification. It maintained some degree of non-orthogonality for the sake of high code density even though this was derided as being ” baroque ” by some computer befeylssatz [ who? Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
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8051 Instruction Set
April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This trade off is made explicitly to enable the use of much larger register sets, extended virtual addresses, and longer immediate data befehlssaz stored directly within the computer instruction. The bit extension of this architecture that was introduced with thewas somewhat more orthogonal despite keeping all the instructions and their bwfehlssatz counterparts.
The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture. In these architectures, only a very few memory befehlssattz instructions can access main memory and only for the purpose of loading data into registers or storing register data back into main memory; only a few addressing modes may be available, and these modes may vary depending on whether the instruction refers to data or involves a transfer of control jump.
At the bit level, the person writing the assembler or debugging machine code would clearly see that symbolic instructions could become any of several different op-codes.
Learn how and when to remove these befehlsdatz messages. Since addressing modes were identical, this made 13 electronic addressing modes, but as in the PDP, the use of the Stack Pointer R14 and Program Counter R15 created a total of over 15 conceptual addressing modes with the assembler program translating the source code into the actual stack-pointer or program-counter based addressing mode needed.
The 8-bit Intel as well as the and microprocessor was basically a slightly extended accumulator-based design and therefore not orthogonal. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. In the late s research at IBM and similar projects elsewhere demonstrated that the majority of these “orthogonal” addressing modes were ignored by most programs.
An orthogonal instruction set does not impose a limitation that requires a certain instruction to use a specific register. This page was last edited on 10 Augustat In computer engineeringan orthogonal instruction set is an instruction set architecture where all instruction types can use all addressing modes.
With the exception of its floating point instructions, the PDP was very strongly orthogonal. Instruction processing Instruction set architectures.
This was largely due to a desire to keep all opcodes one byte long. Motorola’s designers attempted to make the assembly language orthogonal while the underlying machine language was somewhat less so. Single-core Multi-core Manycore Heterogeneous architecture.
Orthogonal instruction set – Wikipedia
Views Read Edit View history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Conversely, data must befrhlssatz in registers before it can be operated upon by the other instructions in the computer’s instruction set. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article possibly contains original research. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This compromise gave almost the same convenience as a truly orthogonal machine, and yet also gave the CPU designers freedom to beffehlssatz the bits in the instructions more efficiently than a purely orthogonal approach might have.
Through the use of the Stack Pointer R6 and Program Counter R7 as referenceable registers, there were 10 conceptual addressing modes available.